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EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies. This journal, with ISSN 1979-7877, was firstly published on August 17, 2008, in the context to commemorate the Independence Day in Indonesia. The EDUCARE journal was managed and organized by the Lecturers of FKIP UMP (Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto) in Central Java, Indonesia, since issue of February 2009 to issue of February 2016; and published by Minda Masagi Press, a publishing house owned by ASPENSI (the Association of Indonesian Scholars of History Education) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia and BRIMAN (Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia Academic Network) Institute in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, since issue of February 2018 to date.

The EDUCARE journal is published every February and August. This journal is dedicated not only for Indonesian scholars who concern about educational studies, but also welcome to the scholars of Southeast Asian countries and around the world who care and share related to the educational studies in general.

The EDUCARE journal is devoted, but not limited to, primary education, secondary education, higher education, teacher education, special education, adult education, non-formal education, and any new development and advancement in the field of education. The scope of our journal includes: (1) Language and literature education; (2) Social science education; (3) Sports and health education; (4) Economy and business education; (5) Math and natural science education; (6) Vocational and engineering education; and (7) Visual arts, dance, music, and design education.

Since early 2016, the website of EDUCARE journal has been migrated from web based on WP (Word Press) program towards the web based on OJS (Open Journal System) program at: mindamas-journals.com/educare. However, the conventional e-mail address for sending the articles is still able to: ijes.educare@gmail.com

Foreword for
EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies,
Volume 10, Number 2, February 2018.

Jose Mejia Ocampo, Jr., Ph.D.
A Guest Editor of EDUCARE Journal in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia; and a Full Professor at the Faculty of Education Sciences PNU (Philippine Normal University) in Manila, Philippines.

Our society is continuously confronted with diverse issues, whether social, political, or even cultural matters. These can be attributed to the differences among people’s beliefs, unscrupulous practices, and utmost-self-interest. However, despite the many differences and problems that surface in the society, still, people are together to acknowledge one of the greatest developments of man, that is education. Education is used as a tool to understand and solve these issues. Moreover, this also serves as an avenue for growth, development, and eventually progress of the nation.

Since the early years, our parents or guardians have inculcated in our minds the value of education for a promising life and rich future. Thus, it is imperative for us to use education for the common good of mankind. In the academies, our tasks are contributory to the delivery of this common good. Through research, we develop the confidence to solve problems that are beyond our capacity to decipher solutions. Decisions mainly rely on facts collected; hunches may work, yet, research works best. After all numerous inventions are started with minute intuitions.

At present, there are calls for responses to universal design for learning. Its idea and practice have been in existence in developed countries, like in the United States of America, Canada, Japan, and others. On the other hand, it remains a dream for third world countries, like the Philippines and Indonesia, for until now bigger budget allocation for education is very elusive.

In the absence of sufficient fund for school expenses, the demand for teachers to be creative in preparing relevant materials to meet the needs of students still exists in African countries, like Nigeria and Ethiopia. Because of the universal design for learning idea, more doors inevitably have to open so that learners in inclusive education environment would benefit from further generation of knowledge.

The e-retailing and call center businesses, without a doubt, continuously flourish. This industry somehow serves as a cushion to threats of unemployment. Various behaviors of people involved in invisible work environment deserve to be assessed to address gaps occurring in this domain. English speaking labor force from India and the Philippines, for examples, could be a fine source of a research population. Clients from different countries also play important roles by supplying information on how to improve e-services.

Gender roles remain a relevant issue in Middle East and Southeast Asian countries. Standards change in order to maximize the full potential of men and women without being abrupt and not compromising their customs and traditions that they have been embracing for many years. More women become interested to pursue higher education; while men shift their interest to softer work assignment. This concept of masculine and feminine balance can be given a closer examination.

Moreover, it is vital to promote studies on special population and ethnic minorities. Their advocates may not be enough to contribute for their well-being and social support, but to generate data anent their situations would pave the way for more actions from various research enthusiasts. If we could help develop themselves and invest for their education, they are great addition in building the nation.

Dangerous as it may seem, very few studies are conducted about terrorism, environment degradation, sexual abuse, human trafficking, corruption, drug abuse, and other ills in the society. Perhaps it cannot be avoided that ethical issues will be raised, when studies are conducted along these areas. It could be challenging to find out, whether or not the foregoing is linked to education.

The countless issues that surround a family still need a thorough scrutiny. The interdependence among parents and their children focusing on their values, aspirations, paradigms, and other variables are worthy of discussion. I wish that articles of EDUCARE journal form part of the shelter that we live in which we call society.

Actually, the articles issued in the EDUCARE journal, for February 2018 edition, come from many countries that consisted of authors from India (one article), authors from the Philippines (one article), and autors from Indonesia (three articles). The authors of India stressed that self-evaluation of teachers can be considered as a process of looking at teachers’ owns progress, development, and learning to determine what has improvement and what areas still need improvement. Self-evaluation of teachers can be considered as a process of looking at teachers’ owns progress, development, and learning to determine what has improvement and what areas still need improvement.

While the authors of Philippines said that critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillsfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. Most formal definitions of critical thinking characterize critical thinking as the intentional application of rational, higher order thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, problem recognition and problem solving, inference, and evaluation.

And last but not least, the authors of Indonesia studied pertaining the teaching Arabic; teaching Mathematics; and character education in the educational institutions. This first article of Indonesia said that Arabic is indispensably necessary, especially in the Muslim-majority in Indonesia. The second article of Indonesia related to the material of the space geometry was not an easy matter to be mastered by students. Students need their imagination to visualize the shape, which came from the two-dimensional images shaped into a three dimensional or vice versa. While the third article of Indonesia said that character education has been an important agenda since the beginning of Indonesian independence, in mid 1940s to date.

Do enjoy reading the EDUCARE journal and hopefully you will derive much benefit from it.

Manila, Philippines: February 28, 2018.

Cover of EDUCARE Journal, Issue of February 2018:

Organized and Published by:

Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI (Association of Indonesian Scholars of History Education) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia and BRIMAN (Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia Academic Network) Institute in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. Websites: mindamas-journals.com/educare

The website of KEMENRISTEKDIKTI RI (Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia) in Jakarta related to the scholarly journals is also available online at: http://simlitabmas.ristekdikti.go.id

Vol 10, No 2 (2018)

Table of Contents


Nilesh Kumar Patel, Poonam Awasthi
Maman Abdurahman, Rahman Rahman, Ely Sa’diah
Anggun Badu Kusuma, Reni Untarti
Yudi Hartono, Samsi Haryanto, Asrowi Asrowi
Rene R Belecina, Jose M Ocampo, Jr.
Editor Journal EDUCARE
Editor Journal EDUCARE
Editor Journal EDUCARE