http://wattsan.com china laser engraver gq30w china good laser engraver.

Psychological Impact of the Sale Deed

Ab Rashid Shiekh, Ali Mohd Pir

Abstract


ABSTRACT: This paper aims to trace the causes and effects of the Treaty of Amritsar through which the princely State of Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh came into being. However, the main focus of the paper is on the Valley of Kashmir. On the one hand, by dint of the Treaty of Amritsar (16 March 1846), the foundation of a new State was laid down; but on the other, the region of Kashmir was occupied with its people at psychologically most disadvantageous position, that is as a bought up commodity, while Ladakh joined as conquered territory. This varied background had deep impact on the future psyche of the inhabitants of the state. While Jammu had a sense of contentment as the power centre, Kashmiris suffered from a sense of humiliation, dispossession, and deprivation. An attempt has been made in this paper to generate a hypothesis about the structural transformation witnessed by the people of Kashmir. Therefore, what seems central to the paper is the impact of the Treaty of Amritsar which brought in its wake remarkable deprivation, destitution, and oppression — where ideas remained suppressed and traditions limit social change. Man was denied a happy existence and his deep sentiments were atrophied. The supposed level of stagnation and passivity down the social scale; the dark, unchanging world of the exploited, once associated with all peasants, was now inhibited only by an underclass.

KEY WORDS: Treaty of Amritsar, states of Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh, people of Kashmir, humiliation, dispossession, and deprivation.

About the Authors: Ab Rashid Shiekh is a Ph.D. Student at the Centre of Advanced Study, Department of History AMU (Aligarh Muslim University) in Aligarh, India; and Ali Mohd Pir is a Lecturer at the P.G. Department of History, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. For academic purposes, they can be reached via their e-mail address at: shiekhrashid.86@gmail.com and huzaifjhee@gmail.com

How to cite this article? Shiekh, Ab Rashid & Ali Mohd Pir. (2014). “Psychological Impact of the Sale Deed” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.6(1) October, pp.43-52. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UNHAS Makassar, ISSN 2085-0980.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (August 4, 2014); Revised (September 17, 2014); and Published (October 28, 2014).


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahad, Abdul. (2013). “Revisiting Treaty of Amritsar” in Greater Kashmir [Newspaper]. Srinagar: 14th March.

Bazaz, Prem Nath. (1941). Inside Kashmir. Srinagar: Gulshan Publishers, republished in 2002.

Bazaz, Prem Nath. (2003). The History of Struggle for Freedom in Kashmir: Cultural and Political from Earliest Time to Present Day. Srinagar: Gulshan Publishers, firstly published in 1954.

Bose, Sumantra. (2003). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.

Brinkman, Arthur. (1867). Wrongs of Kashmir. London: 40, Berkely Square.

Cunningham, J.D. (1853). A History of the Sikhs. London: John Murray, 2nd edition.

Dhar, D.N. (2005). Kashmir: A Kaleidoscopic View. New Delhi: Kanishaka Publishers.

D’Oyley, Torrens Henry. (1863). Travels in Ladakh, Tartary, and Kashmir. London: Saunders, Otley, and Co.

“File of Foreign Department, K.W. Political A, December 1879, Nos.250-289” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File of New Kashmir, the Political and Economic Manifesto of Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (1944), reprinted in English by Shiekh Nazir, General Secretary National Conference” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File No.191/H-75 Bloc of 1906, JKSA-J (Jammu and Kashmir State Archives, Jammu)” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File of Foreign Department, Semi-Official from F. Henvey to A.C. Lyall, Dated at Lahore on December 1879” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File of W.R. Lawrence, Settlement Officer, Kashmir to Colonel R.P. Nisbet, Resident, Kashmir, Foreign Department, dated at the Srinagar, 13th November 1889, Semi-Official” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File of the Famine in Kashmir during 1877-78-79 by Mr. Henvey of Foreign Department, confidential K.W-No.2” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File of Foreign Department, from W.R. Lawrence, Settlement Officer Kashmir to Colonel R.P. Nisbet, Resident in Kashmir, dated at the Camp, Kashmir, on 2nd December 1889” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File of Foreign Department, from Colonel W.F. Prideaux, Resident in Kashmir to the Secretary of the Government of India, Confidential No.714-5118, dated at the Srinagar, on 16th October 1892” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File of Political Department, Telegram from Sheikh Abdullah, President of Jammu and Kashmir National Conference to British Cabinet Mission, File No.182-P(S)/46, Srinagar, Lahore, Dated 22nd April 1946” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“File of Fortnightly Reports from 31st January to 15th May 1946, Political Department, File 13-C/46 (Top Secret, Srinagar, June 1946)” in NAI [National Archives of India].

Ghulam Abbas, Chaudhary. (2001). Kashmakash (Autobiography). Srinagar: Kashmir Studies Foundation, firstly published on 1954 in Urdu language.

Hervey, Mrs. (1853). The Adventures of a Lady in Tartary, Thibet, China, and Kashmir, 3 Volumes. London: Hope and Co.

Hull, E.G. (1903). Vignettes of Kashmir. London: Marshall Brothers.

Iqbal, Mohammad. (1932). Kulliyat-i Iqbal. Lahore: Iqbal Acedemic Publications.

Jalal, Ayesha. (2000). Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam since 1850. London and New York: Routledge.

Lakhanpal, P.L. (1965). Essential Documents on Kashmir Dispute. Delhi: International Books, 2nd edition.

Lawrence, W.R. (1891). The Valley of Kashmir. London: Oxford University Press.

“Note by Mr. Fanshave on the Famine of Kashmir, Foreign Department, K.W. (Sec.-E), March 1883, File Nos.81-82” in NAI [National Archives of India].

O’ Connor, V.C. Scott. (1920). The Charm of Kashmir. London: Longmans Green and Co.

Pampori, Mohammad Sultan. (1992). Kashmir in Chains, 1819-1992. Srinagar: Pampori Publishing House.

Pannikar, K.M. (1930). The Founding of the Kashmir State. London: Martin Hopkinson.

Petrie, Irene. (1903). Missionary to Kashmir. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

“Political Department, (P-Branch), File No.182-P(S) 46, 1846” in NAI [National Archives of India].

“Political Department, File No.498, (Confidential Sec. of 1931)” in NAI [National Archives of India].

Rai, Mridu. (2004). Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects, Islam Rights, and the History of Kashmir. Delhi: Permanent Black.

Sana-ullah Bhat, Khawaja. (1998). Kashmir in Flames. Srinagar: Ali Mohammad & Sons.

Sufi, G.M.D. (1974). Kashmir: Being a History of Kashmir from Earliest Times to Our Own, Vol.2. Delhi: Light and Life Publications.

Taseer, Rashid. (1968). Tehreek-i-Huriyat-i-Kashmir, 1931-1939, Vol.1. Srinagar: Muha’afiz Publications.

Thorpe, Robert. (1870). Cashmere Misgovernment. London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Torrens, Colonel Travels. (1877). A Trip to Kashmir and Ladakh. London: Henry S. King & Co.

Vigne, Godrey Thomas. (1844). Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, Iskardo, 2 Vols. New Delhi: Sagar Publications, reprinted in 1981.

Wakefield, W. (1879). The Happy Valley Sketches of Kashmir and the Kashmiris. London: Sampson Low.

Wani, Gull. (2011). Kashmir Identity Autonomy and Self Rule. Srinagar: Wattan Publications.

Wilson, Andrew. (1876). The Abode of Snow. London: William Blackwood and Sons.