IQ Option www.iqoption.cz V České republice

Frustration and Aggression as the Basic Factors of Workers’ Strike: A Case Study on Railway Workers’ Strike in Semarang, Central Java, in the Colonial Era

Dewi Yuliati

Abstract


ABSTRACT: This research aims to analyze the basic factors of the railway workers’ strike in Semarang, Central Java, in the Dutch colonial era. Historical method, that is finding and examining the historical records, was used to get authentic and credible facts. The historical analysis was supported by other relevant social sciences concepts, especially psychology, sociology, and politics to reach the objective construction of the history of railway workers’ strike in Semarang. The result of this research can be summarized as follows. Semarang, a city which has been industrialized since the middle of the 19th century, is a nutritious area for the growth and the development of industrial community which consists of employer and worker classes. In this industrial community, capitalism lacking of appreciation to the workers’ force led the workers to frustration. Frustration could make every human being or even animal aggressive. This research shows that “frustration and aggression” are the basic factors of the workers’ movement, among others in the form of strike.

KEY WORDS: workers’ strike and movement, frustration and aggression, Semarang city, and colonial era in Indonesia.

About the Author: Dr. Dewi Yuliati is a Lecturer at the Department of History, Faculty of Cultural Sciences UNDIP (Diponegoro University) in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. She can be reached at: dewi_yulliati@yahoo.co.id

How to cite this article? Yuliati, Dewi. (2010). “Frustration and Aggression as the Basic Factors of Workers’ Strike: A Case Study on Railway Workers’ Strike in Semarang, Central Java, in the Colonial Era” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.1(2) April, pp.179-200. Bandung, Indonesia: ASPENSI [Asosiasi Sarjana Pendidikan Sejarah Indonesia], ISSN 2085-0980.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (February 7, 2010); Revised (March 11, 2010); and Published (April 28, 2010).


Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, Benecict R.O’G. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and the Spread of Nationalism. London: Thetford Press Limited, Thetford, Norfolk.

Blumberger, J.Th. Petrus. (1987). De Nationalistische Beweging in Nederlandsch-Indië. Dordrecht Holland/Providence-U.S.A.: Foris Publications.

Goto, Ken’ichi. (1997). “Modern Japan and Indonesia: The Dynamics and Legacy of Wartime Rule” in Peter Post & Elly Touwen-Bouwsma [eds]. Japan-Indonesia and the War. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Gurr, Robert Ted. (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Ingleson, John. (1986). In Search of Justice: Workers and Unions in Colonial Java, 1908-1926. Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Kartodirdjo, Sartono. (1973). Protest Movement in Rural Java: A Case Study of Agrarian Unrest in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Kohl, Herbeth. (1992). From Archetype to Zeitgeist: Powerful Ideas for Powerful Thinking. Boston, New York, Toronto, London: Little, Brown and Company.

Larson, George D. (1987). Prelude to Revolution: Palaces and Politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942. Dordrecht-Holland/Providence-U.S.A.: Foris Publications.

Liem Thian Joe. (1931). Riwajat Semarang (Dari Djamannja Sam Poo Sampe Terhapoesnja Kongkoan). Semarang: n.p.

Malaka, Tan. (2000). Aksi Massa. Jakarta: Teplok Press.

McVey, Ruth T. (1965). The Rise of Indonesian Communism. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

Poloma, Margaret M. (1985). Sosiologi Kontemporer. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Solidaritas Gadjah Mada.

Sandra. (1955). Mogok dan Pemogokan. Djakarta: Pantjaroba.

Shiraishi, Takashi. (1992). An Age in Motion: Popular Radicalism in Java, 1912-1926. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Soemardi. (1954). Sedjarah Pergerakan di Semarang. Semarang: Jajasan 17 Agustus.

Stevens, Theo. (1970). “De Ontwikkeling van Semarang als Koloniale Uitvoerhaven van Midden-Java Sinds 1900 en Zijn Tegenwoordige Betekenis” in Francien van Anrooj et al. [eds]. Between People and Statistics: Essays on Modern Indonesian History. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Sukarno, M.P.A. (1982). Pembaharuan Gerakan Buruh di Indonesia dan Hubungan Perburuhan Panca Sila. Bandung: Alumni.

Tichelman, F. (1985). Socialisme in Indonesië: De Indische Sociaal Democratische Vereeniging, 1897-1917. Dordrecht-Holland/Cinnaminson-USA: Foris Publications.

Yuliati, Dewi. (2006). “Dinamika Pergerakan Buruh di Semarang, 1908-1926”. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University.

Archives:

“A Circular Letter of VSTP, Sanget Penting (Semarang Drukker) VSTP, 23 April 1923” in The Collection of Algemeen Rijks Archive in Den Haag, Inventory Number 144, VSTP Semarang, 1923.

“Bijlage Algemeen Verslag” in Politiek Overzicht, 1925.

“Bulletin of Centre Board of VSTP, Enclosed in the Letter of Resident of Semarang to Governor General, 8 June 1923” in Vb. 24 August 1924.

“Centrale Leiding van De Spoor en Tramweg Staking in Nederlansch-Indie, Semarang, Djangan Toendoek Kepala!! Awas, Awas!! Madjoe Teroes!! Djangan Moendoer!!, 10 May 1923” in Collection of Algemeen Rijks Archive in Den Haag, Inventory Number 144-VSTP Semarang.

“Koleksi Algemeene Rijks Archief”, Nomer Inventaris 144-VSTP Semarang, 1923.

“Koleksi Algemeen Rijks Archief di Den Haag”, Nomer Inventaris 144, VSTP Semarang, 1923.

Koloniaal Verslag, 1917.

“Laporan Penasehat untuk Urusan Bumiputera (R.A. Kern) tentang Kongres PKI ke-9 di Batavia, 7-10 Juni 1924” in Mr. 1924, No.501x.

“Makloemat VSTP (Semarang Drukkerij V.S.T.P.)” in Collection of Algemeen Rijks Archive in Den Haag, Inventory Number 144-VSTP Semarang, 1923.

“Report of Advisor on Indigenous Affairs (R.A. Kern) about the Congress of Communist Party IX in Batavia, on 7-10 June 1924” in Mr. 1924, No.501x.

“Rapport-Secret” in Report of Politic Ministry Gew. Recherche, 1 May 1923.

“Rapport-Rahasia” in Laporan Mantri Politie Gew. Recherche, 1 Mei 1923.

”Surat Edaran VSTP, SANGET PENTING (Semarang: Drukkerij VSTP), 23 April 1923”.

“The Letter of Governor General Fock to the Ministry of Colonialized Countries (De Graaf) 16 May 1923” in Vb. 14 July 1923, No.15.

Vb. 14 Juli 1923, No.15.

Vb. 24 Agustus 1924.

“Vereeniging van Spoor en Tramweg-Personeel in Nederlandsch-Indiё” in Collection of Algemeen Rijks Archief, Inventory Number 144-VSTP Semarang,1923.

Newspaper:

De Locomotief. Semarang: 16 November 1908.

De Locomotief. Semarang: 18 March 1913.

De Volharding. Semarang: 10 February 1920.

Sinar Djawa. Semarang: 27 February 1915.

Sinar Djawa, No.16. Semarang: 19 January 1918.

Sinar Djawa. Semarang: 12 February 1918.

Sinar Djawa. Semarang: 4 March 1918.

Sinar Hindia. Semarang: 5 May 1918.

Sinar Hindia. Semarang: 14 January 1919.

Sinar Hindia. Semarang: 20 February 1920.

Sinar Hindia. Semarang: 5 May 1920.

Sinar Hindia. Semarang: 5 May 1923.

Sinar Hindia. Semarang: 8 May 1923.

Sinar Hindia. Semarang: 12 May 1923.

Sinar Hindia. Semarang: 2 May 1924.