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Mengenal Lebih Dekat Triad dan Serikat Rahasia Tiongkok

Tuty Enoch Muas

Abstract


IKHTISAR: Ketika mendengar atau membaca kata “Triad”, hampir semua orang akan menghubungkannya dengan kelompok “bawah tanah” atau kriminal di Tiongkok. Stigma itu memang tidak salah, karena dalam sejarah Tiongkok, “Triad” tercatat sebagai bagian dari Serikat Rahasia atau “Mimi Shehui”, yang aktivitasnya ada di sekitar perjudian, pelacuran, penyelundupan, perampokan, dan bahkan pembunuhan. Di sisi lain, tokoh penggerak revolusi Tiongkok, Sun Yatsen, mengakui peran Serikat Rahasia dalam revolusi. Fakta yang kontradiktif tersebut menarik untuk diteliti. Bagaimana sebenarnya asal-usul dan seluk-beluk Serikat Rahasia di Tiongkok?; mengapa “Triad” yang menjadi ikon Serikat Rahasia Tiongkok sampai sekarang?; serta apa saja aktivitasnya dan bagaimana respon rakyat Tiongkok terhadapnya? Beberapa pertanyaan tersebut merupakan pokok bahasan yang dianalisis melalui pendekatan sejarah. Tujuannya adalah untuk memperkenalkan secara lebih utuh tentang Serikat Rahasia di Tiongkok, terutama perkembangannya di abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20. Perkembangan “Triad” berjalan beriringan dengan perkembangan diaspora bangsa Tionghoa di seluruh dunia. Dewasa ini, baik sistem rekrutmen keanggotaan dan tata-kelola organisasi maupun aktivitas “Triad” pasti lebih kompleks. Oleh karena itu, kajian tentang Triadtetap relevan untuk ditelusuri dan didalami.

KATA KUNCI:Triad, Serikat Rahasia, asal-usul, seluk-beluk, kontradiksi, pendekatan sejarah, dan bangsa Tionghoa.

ABSTRACT: This paper entitled “Knowing More of the Triad and Secret Society in China”. When hear or read the word of Triads, almost everyone will associate it with the Chinese “under ground” or criminal community. This stigma of course did no wrong, because in Chinese history, Triads was recorded as part of a Secret Society or “Mimi Shehui”, which its activities were around gambling, prostitution, smuggling, robbery, and even murder. On the other hand, Sun Yatsen as a leader of Chinese revolution, has recognized the role of Secret Societies in the revolution. The facts of being contradictory is interesting to be researched. How exactly the origin and the ins and outs of Secret Societies in China?; why until now Triads become the icon of China Secret Societies?; and what are their activities and how the Chinese people's response to them? The questions are the subjects that will be analyzed through historical approach. The goal is to introducing the Chinese Secret Societies in a more comprehensive way, especially their development in the 19th century until the early 20th century. The development of Triads run in tandem with the development of Chinese people diaspora around the world. Nowadays, the system of recruitment, membership, and governance of the organization and activities of Triads is certainly more complex. Therefore, study of Triads remain relevant to be searched and explored.

KEY WORD: Triad, Secret Societies, origin, the ins and outs of, contradiction, historical approach, and Chinese people.

About the Author: Dr. Tuty Enoch Muas adalah Dosen Senior di Program Studi Cina, Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya UI (Universitas Indonesia), Kampus UI Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia. Untuk kepentingan akademis, penulis bisa dihubungi dengan alamat emel: mutu1722@yahoo.com

How to cite this article? Muas, Tuty Enoch. (2014). “Mengenal Lebih Dekat Triad dan Serikat Rahasia Tiongkok” in SUSURGALUR: Jurnal Kajian Sejarah & Pendidikan Sejarah, Vol.2(1), Maret, pp.11-28. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UBD Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, ISSN 2302-5808, ISSN 2302-5808.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (January 18, 2014); Revised (February 18, 2014); and Published (Maret 24, 2014).


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