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Perburuan Hamba, Perlanunan, dan Kempen Penghapusan Lanun di Sarawak: Perspektif Sejarah Maritim

Ismail Ali

Abstract


Ikhtisar: Abad ke-18 dan ke-19 telah menyaksikan kemunculan orang-orang Dayak Laut di Sarawak — bersama-sama dengan orang-orang Iranun dan Balangingi yang berasal dari kepulauan Filipina — sebagai “hero” Brunei kerana pernah menjadikan bangsa Eropah sebagai tawanan dan hamba mereka. Penguasaan orang-orang Iranun, Balagingi, dan Dayak Laut yang juga dikenali sebagai ”Raja di Laut” dan “Vikings of the Eastern Seas” di perairan kepulaun Borneo dan Asia Tenggara ini telah menggerunkan dan sekaligus menjadi mimpi ngeri kepada para pelayar dan pedagang Barat yang berlayar ke kawasan perairan kepulauan Borneo dan Asia Tenggara pada waktu itu. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji penglibatan dan peranan para pembesar Brunei dan Melayu di Sarawak dalam aktiviti pemburuan hamba dan perlanunan serta membantu rejim Brooke dalam kempen penghapusan lanun (mantan pembesar Brunei, pembesar Melayu Sarawak, dan Dayak Laut) di sekitar perairan Sarawak dan Brunei pada era pemerintahan Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II (1828-1852) dari perspektif ekonomi dan budaya maritim Brunei.

Kata kunci: Lanun, orang Dayak Laut, dan penglibatan pembesar Brunei dan Melayu di Serawak dalam dunia perlanunan.

Abstract: The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries witnessed the emergence of the Sea Dayaks in Sarawak — alongside the Iranuns and the Balangingis whose homeland was the Philippine islands — as the heroes of Brunei due to the fact that the Europeans were once captured by the Sea Dayaks and were made as the latter’s slaves. The control that the Iranuns, the Balangingis, and the Sea Dayaks who were also known as the King of the Seas and the Vikings of the Eastern Seas had over the Borneo island and Southeast Asia was rather intimidating, in fact a nightmare, for travelers and Western traders who sailed to or through the region. This article aims to investigate the involvement of, and the role played by, Brunei’s governing elite and the Malays in Sarawak in slave hunting and piratical activities and the assistance they offered to Brooke regime in piracy eradication campaign (former Brunei’s governors, Malay Sarawak governors, and the Sea Dayaks) at the coastal areas of Sarawak and Brunei during the reign of Sultan Omar Saifuddin II (1828-1852) from the perspectives of maritime economy and culture of Brunei.

Key word: Piracy, Sea Dayaks, involvement of Brunei’s governing elite and the Malays in Sarawak in the world of piracy.

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About the Author: Prof. Madya Dr. Ismail Ali ialah Pensyarah Kanan di Program Sejarah, Sekolah Sains Sosial UMS (Universiti Malaysia Sabah), Jalan Beg Berkunci, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Alamat e-mail: ismailrc@ums.edu.my

How to cite this article? Ali, Ismail. (2013). “Perburuan Hamba, Perlanunan, dan Kempen Penghapusan Lanun di Sarawak: Perspektif Sejarah Maritim” in SUSURGALUR: Jurnal Kajian Sejarah & Pendidikan Sejarah, Vol.1(1), Maret, pp.27-40. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press, ISSN 2302-5808.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (January 12, 2013); Revised (February 22, 2013); and Published (March 24, 2013).


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