Explore tweets about pricealerts.

Character-Based Curriculum and Textbook Development in Indonesia: A Critical Review

Iwan Jazadi

Abstract


ABSTRACT: Education in Indonesia is declared to be in an emergency state, whereas a lot of innovative policies have been offered, mainly since the availability of education reform and autonomy in 2003. This situation illustrates the world of education in Indonesia are still many weaknesses and needs to be revised thoroughly. The education process, however, should be fun, child-centered, and that new curriculum policies have to be rooted in the people and exempted from short-term political interests. The writer argues that the national education system can be improved through developing character-based curriculum and textbooks by fulfilling four criteria, those are: the adoption of a broader conception of curriculum; participatory curriculum decision making; a critical analysis of characteristic values in textbooks; and developing character education by integrating good values into the textbooks and in other activities either planned or in those forming the hidden curriculum. Empirical findings from primary research and observation on the implementation of the 1994 Curriculum, Competency-Based and School-Based Curriculum (2006), and 2013 Curriculum, which are analyzed in lights of curriculum and textbook theories and practices from around the world, form the argumentative strengths of this article. The character education program has to be integrated in the curriculum revision and preparation of textbooks.

KEY WORD: Indonesian education, formal curriculum, hidden curriculum, textbooks, character values, integrating good values, and character education.

RESUME: “Pengembangan Kurikulum dan Buku Teks Berbasis Karakter di Indonesia: Sebuah Tinjauan Kritis”. Pendidikan di Indonesia disinyalir mengalami keadaan gawat-darurat, padahal berbagai kebijakan inovatif telah dilaksanakan, terutama sejak bergulirnya reformasi dan otonomi pendidikan sejak tahun 2003. Keadaan ini menggambarkan dunia pendidikan di Indonesia masih banyak kelemahan dan perlu dibenahi secara menyeluruh. Proses pendidikan, walau bagaimanapun, hendaknya menyenangkan, berpusat pada peserta didik, dan kebijakan kurikulum baru harus berakar di masyarakat serta dibebaskan dari kepentingan politik sesaat. Penulis berargumen bahwa sistem pendidikan nasional akan dapat dibenahi melalui pengembangan kurikulum dan buku teks berbasis karakter, dimana penataan tersebut harus memenuhi empat persyaratan fundamental, yaitu: pengadopsian konsepsi kurikulum secara luas; pembuatan keputusan kurikulum secara partisipatif; penelaahan kritis nilai-nilai karakter didalam buku teks; dan pengembangan pendidikan karakter dengan pengintegrasian nilai-nilai karakter kedalam buku teks dan kegiatan-kegiatan lainnya, baik yang terencana maupun yang merupakan bagian dari kurikulum tersembunyi. Temuan empirik dari penelitian primer dan pengamatan tentang penerapan Kurikulum 1994, KBK-KTSP atau Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi — Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (2006), dan Kurikulum 2013, yang ditelaah secara kritis berdasarkan teori dan praktek kurikulum dan buku teks dari berbagai belahan dunia, membentuk kekuatan argumentasi tulisan ini. Program pendidikan karakter harus diintegrasikan dalam revisi kurikulum dan persiapan buku teks.

KATA KUNCI: Pendidikan Indonesia, kurikulum formal, kurikulum tersembunyi, buku teks, nilai karakter, integrasi nilai-nilai baik, dan pendidikan karakter.

About the Author: Iwan Jazadi, Ph.D. is a Lecturer and Chairman of STKIP (College of Education and Teacher Training) Paracendekia NW Sumbawa, Jalan Lintas Sumbawa Bima Km.5, Sumbawa Besar, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia. For academic interests, the author is able to be contacted via mobile phone at: +62810915923077 or via e-mail at: iwanjazadi@gmail.com

How to cite this article? Jazadi, Iwan. (2015). “Character-Based Curriculum and Textbook Development in Indonesia: A Critical Review” in SOSIOHUMANIKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Vol.8(2) November, pp.313-330. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UNIPA Surabaya, ISSN 1979-0112.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (October 5, 2015); Revised (November 10, 2015); and Published (November 30, 2015).


Keywords


Indonesian education; formal curriculum; hidden curriculum; textbooks; character values; integrating good values; character education

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acar, E. (2012). “Hidden Curriculum Contributing to Social Production-Reproduction in a Math Classroom” in International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(1), pp.19-30.

AEC [Australian Education Council]. (1994). A Statement on English for Australian Schools. Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.

Bappenas RI [Badan Perancang Pembangunan Nasional Republik Indonesia]. (2013). Pembangunan Kesetaraan Gender [Gender Equality Development]: Background Study RPJMN III (2015-2019). Jakarta: The Ministry of National Development Planning.

Baswedan, Anies. (2014). “Gawat-Darurat Pendidikan di Indonesia” [The Emergency of Indonesian Education]. A paper delivered at the meeting between Ministry and Head of Education Offices Indonesia-wide in Jakarta, on December 1.

Bayanfar, F. (2013). “The Effect of Hidden Curriculum on Academic Achievement of High School Students” in International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 5(6), pp.671-681.

Bermúdez, J.F.G. (2014). “An Exercise in Course-Book Evaluation: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Recommendations Regarding New English File, Elementary” in Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 7(2), pp.98-111.

Brady, L. & K. Kennedy. (1999). Curriculum Construction. Sydney: Prentice Hall.

Breen, M.P. & A. Littlejohn [eds]. (2000). Classroom Decision-Making: Negotiation and Process Syllabuses in Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burns, A. & H. De Silva Joyce [eds]. (2000a). Teachers' Voices 4: Staying Learner-Centred in a Competency-Based Curriculum. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching.

Burns, A. & H. De Silva Joyce [eds]. (2000b). Teachers' Voices 5: A New Look at Reading Practices. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.

Burns, A. & H. De Silva Joyce [eds]. (2001). Teachers' Voices 7: Teaching Vocabulary. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.

Burton, J. (1998). “Professionalism in Language Teaching” in Prospect, 13(1), pp.24-35.

Burton, J. (2000). “Learning from Teaching Practice: A Case Study Approach” in Prospect, 15(3), pp.5-22.

Chrisiana, W. (2005). “Upaya Penerapan Pendidikan Karakter bagi Mahasiswa: Studi Kasus di Jurusan Teknik Industri UK Petra” [Efforts of Implementing Character Education for Students: A Case Study at Industrial Engineering Department of UK Petra] in Jurnal Teknik Industri, 7(1), pp.83-90.

Cubukcu, Z. (2012). “The Effect of Hidden Curriculum on Character Education Process of Primary School Students” in Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(2), pp.1526-1534.

Dardjowidjojo, S. (1993). “Kontroversi di dalam Pendekatan Komunikatif” [Controversies in the Communicative Approach] in B.K. Purwo [ed]. PELLBA 6: Analisis Wacana Pengajaran Bahasa [Discourse Analysis of Language Teaching]. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, pp.79-103.

Depdiknas RI [Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia]. (2003). Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional [Act Number 20 Year 2003 on National Education System]. Jakarta: Depdiknas RI.

Dewanti, D.F. (2013). “An Analysis of English Users in Reading and Speaking Text in EFL Textbooks in Curriculum 2013 Used by the First Graders of Junior and Senior High School”. Unpublished B.Ed. Thesis. Salatiga, Central Java: Satya Wacana Christian University.

Freeman, D.A. (1998). Doing Teacher Research: From Inquiry to Understanding. Pacific Grove: Heinle & Heinle.

Freeman, D.A. (1999). “Changing Teaching: Insights into Individual Development in the Contexts of Schools” in C. Ward & W. Renandya [eds]. Language Teaching, New Insights for the Language Teacher: Anthology Series 40. Singapore: SEAMEO-RELC, pp.28-46.

Freeman, D.A. & J.C. Richards. (1996). Teacher Learning in Language Teaching. Cambridge, England and New York, USA [United States of America]: Cambridge University Press.

Gerrald, J. (2013). “Researching the Creation of a National Curriculum from Systems to Classrooms” in Australian Journal of Education, 57(1), pp.60-73.

Ghosh, R. (2010). “Racism: A Hidden Curriculum” in Education Canada, 48(4), pp.26-29.

Gopang, A.S. et al. (2012). “Critical Analysis of Textbooks of English (Compulsory) Class IX and X, Published by Sindh Textbook Board, Jamshoro, Pakistan” in International Journal of Research in Linguistics & Lexicography, 1(2), pp.1-13. Available online also at website: www.intjr.com [accessed in Sumbawa Besar, Indonesia: March 9, 2015].

Graves, K.E. (2000). Designing Language Courses: A Guide for Teachers. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Hamied, F.A. (1993). Laporan Nasional Hasil WASRIK (Pengawasan dan Pemeriksaan) Tema Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris di SMA Negeri [A Report of the Results of National Supervision and Inspection of English Teaching in Public Senior High Schools]. Jakarta: Inspectorate General of Education and Culture Department.

Hamied, F.A. (1997). “EFL Program Surveys in Indonesian Schools: Toward EFL Curriculum Implementation for Tomorrow” in G.M. Jacobs [ed]. Language Classrooms of Tomorrow: Issues and Responses. Singapore: SEAMEO-RELC, pp.67-77.

Holland, C. (2011). “Recognizing the Hidden Curriculum of Gender Roles”. A paper in the Department of Educational Studies, St. Mary’s College of Maryland, USA [United States of America].

Huda, N. (1990). “A Survey of Teaching of English in Secondary Schools in Eight Provinces” in TEFLIN Journal, 3(1), pp.5-17.

Interview with Respondent A, a high school teacher, in Sumbawa Besar, Indonesia, on January 15, 2015.

Interview with Respondent B, a school principal, in Sumbawa Besar, Indonesia, on January 15, 2015.

Jazadi, I. (2000). “Mencermati Perubahan Paradigma Pendidikan Indonesia” [Observing Paradigm Change in Indonesian Education] in newspaper of Kompas. Jakarta: February 25. Available online also at: http://www2.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0002/25/OPINI/menc04.htm

Jazadi, I. (2003). “An Investigation of Current and Potential Resources for Developing Learner-Centred Curriculum Frameworks of English Subject at High Schools in Lombok, Indonesia”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Australia: The University of South Australia.

Jazadi, I. (2008). The Politics of Curriculum: An Interpretive Study of English Language Teaching and Learning at High Schools in Indonesia. Sumbawa: Paracendekia NW Press.

Joyce, H. De Silva [ed]. (2000). Teachers' Voices 6: Teaching Casual Conversation. Sydney, NSW [New South Wales]: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University.

Kemdikbud RI [Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia]. (2014a). “Seputar Keputusan Mendikbud tentang Penghentian Kurikulum 2013”. Available online also at website: www.kemdikbud.go.id [accessed in Sumbawa Besar, Indonesia: March 9, 2015].

Kemdikbud RI [Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia]. (2014b). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan RI No.160 Tahun 2014 tentang Perberlakukan Kurikulum 2006 dan Kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Kemdikbud RI.

Kemdikbud RI [Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia]. (2014c). Bahasa Inggris SMA/SMK/MA/MAK Kelas X Semester 1. Jakarta: Kemdikbud RI.

Kentli, F.D. (2009). “Comparison of Hidden Curriculum Theories” in European Journal of Educational Studies, 1(2), pp.83-88.

Kosim, M. (2011). “Urgensi Pendidikan Karakter” [The Urgency of Character Education] in Karsa, IXI(1), pp.85-92.

Linder, P. (2000). “Is a Negotiated Syllabus Feasible within a National Curriculum?” in M.P. Breen & A. Littlejohn [eds]. Classroom Decision-Making: Negotiation and Process Syllabuses in Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.94-107.

Marsh, C.J. (1994). Producing a National Curriculum: Plans and Paranoia. St. Leonards, NSW [New South Wales]: Allen & Unwin.

Marsh, C.J. (1997). Perspectives: Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum. USA [United States of America]: Falmer Press.

Massialas, B.G. (1996). “The Hidden Curriculum and Social Studies” in B.G. Massialas & R.F. Allen [eds]. Crucial Issues in Teaching Social Studies, K-12. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, pp.61-80.

McKay, P. & A. Scarino. (1991a). ALL Manual for Curriculum Developers. Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.

McKay, P. & A. Scarino. (1991b). ESL Framework of Stages: An Approach to ESL Learning in Schools, K-12. Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.

Mirza, M. (2004). Gender Analysis of School Curriculum and Text Books. Pakistan: UNESCO [United Nations for Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization].

Mohamed, M.A.S. (2014). “The Representation of Arabs and Turks in the Libyan English Language Teaching Textbooks” in International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, 2(2), pp.179-196. Available online also at website: http://www.eltsjournal.org [accessed in Sumbawa Besar, Indonesia: March 9, 2015].

Murdibjono et al. (1996). English for the Junior High School 1. Malang: IKIP [Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan] Malang.

NSW AMES [New South Wales Adult Migrant English Service]. (1995). Certificates in Spoken and Written English. Surry Hills: New South Wales Adult Migrant English Service.

NSW AMES [New South Wales Adult Migrant English Service]. (1998). Certificates in Spoken and Written English, I and II. Sydney: New South Wales Adult Migrant English Service, updated edit.

Nunan, D. & J. Burton. (1989). Beginning Learners — Southeast Asian Focus: A Curriculum Framework for Adult Second Language Learners. NSW [New South Wales], Australia: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University.

Portelli, J.P. (1993). “Exposing the Hidden Curriculum” in Journal of Curriculum Studies, 25(4), pp.343-358.

Prasojo, A. (2014). “The Analysis of English Textbook ‘Pathway to English’ Used in the First Grade of Senior High School Based on Curriculum 2013 (An Analytical Study on English Textbook for First Year of Senior High School)”. Unpublished Bachelor Thesis. Jakarta: UIN [Universitas Islam Negeri] Syarif Hidayatullah.

Puskurbuk [Pusat Kurikulum dan Perbukuan]. (2011). Panduan Pelaksanaan Pendidikan Karakter [The Implementation Guide of Character Education]. Jakarta: Puskurbuk.

Richards, J.C. (2001). Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J.C. & T.S. Rodgers. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition.

Sadtono, E. (2000). “Intercultural Understanding: To Teach or Not to Teach” in H.W. Kam & C. Ward [eds]. Language in the Global Context: Implications for the Language Classroom. Singapore: SEAMEO-RELC, pp.164-194.

Sadtono, E., M. O'Reilly & Handayani. (1997). “A Diagnostic Survey of the Teaching of English in Junior Secondary Schools in Four Provinces in Indonesia” in RELC Journal, 28(1), pp.175-178.

Sangster, S. (2000). “Teacher Strategies for Remaining Learner-Centred” in A. Burns & H. Joyce [eds]. Teachers' Voices 4: Staying Learner-Centred in a Competency-Based Curriculum. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching, pp.150-153.

Scarino, A. (1991). Developing Language Syllabuses and Programs of a K-12 Series of Syllabus Exemplars: Italian. Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.

Scarino, A. (1992). ALL Inservice Facilitators' Handbook: A Professional Development Program for Language Teachers K-12: Australian Language Levels (ALL) Guidelines. Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.

Scarino, A. et al. (1988). Australian Language Levels (ALL) Guidelines. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre.

Seddon, T. (1983). “The Hidden Curriculum: An Overview” in Curriculum Perspectives, 3(1), pp.1-6.

Siswanto, A.H. (2014). “Manajemen Pembelajaran Muatan Lokal Bahasa Inggris Berbasis Karakter di SDN Utama 1 Tarakan” [Management of Character-Based English as Local Content in SDN Utama 1 Tarakan] in Jurnal Kebijakan dan Pengembangan Pendidikan, 2(2), pp.193-202.

Slamet, P.H. (2014). “Politik Pendidikan Indonesia dalam Abad ke-21” [Indonesian Education Politics in 21st Century] in Cakrawala Pendidikan, XXXIII(3), pp.324-337.

Smith, M.K. (2000). “Curriculum Theory and Practice” in The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education. Available online also at website: www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm [accessed in Sumbawa Besar, Indonesia: March 9, 2015].

Sumintono, B. (2013). “Isu Pengembangan Kurikulum Baru” [Issues on New Curriculum Development]. A paper presented at Focus Group Discussion — Indonesian Students Association (PPI) at UTM (Malaysia University of Technology), Johor Bahru, Malaysia, on April 27.

Suyitno, I. (2012). “Pendidikan Karakter dan Budaya Bangsa Berwawasan Kearifan Lokal” [Character Education and National Culture Based on Local Wisdom] in Jurnal Pendidikan Karakter, II(1), pp.1-13.

Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace & World.

TESOL [Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages]. (1997). ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.

Tomlinson, B. (1999). “Materials Development for Language Teachers” in Modern English Teacher, 8(1), pp.62-64.

Tomlinson, B. (2001). “Materials Development” in R. Carter & D. Nunan [eds]. The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.66-71.

Tudor, I. (2001). The Dynamics of the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vale, D., A. Scarino & P. McKay. (1991). Pocket ALL: A Users' Guide to the Teaching of Languages and ESL. Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.

Widyastono, H. (2013). Pengembangan Kurikulum di Era Otonomi Daerah: Dari Kurikulum 2004, 2006, ke Kurikulum 2013 [Curriculum Development in the Regional Autonomy Era: From the 2004, 2006 Curriculums to the 2013 Curriculum]. Jakarta: Penerbit Bumi Aksara.

Winarni, S. (2013). “Integrasi Pendidikan Karakter dalam Perkuliahan” [Integrating Character Education in Lectures] in Jurnal Pendidikan Karakter, III(1), pp.95-107.

Woods, D. (1991). “Teachers' Interpretation of Second Language Teaching Curricula” in RELC Journal, 22(2), pp.1-20.

Woods, D. (1996). Teacher Cognition in Language Teaching: Beliefs, Decision-Making, and Classroom Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wyatt, M. & M. Pickle, M. (1993). “Good Teaching is Good Teaching: Basic Beliefs of College Reading Instructors” in Journal of Reading, 36(5), pp.340-348.

Yuksel, S. (2005). “Kohlberg and Hidden Curriculum in Moral Education: An Opportunity for Students’ Acquisition of Moral Values in the New Turkish Primary Education Curriculum” in Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 5(2), pp.329-338.




SOSIOHUMANIKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan is published by Minda Masagi Press. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 4.0.