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Menangani Kerencaman Kaum dalam Proses Bina Bangsa: Cabaran dan Pengalaman Malaysia

Mujibu Abd Muis

Abstract


IKHTISAR: Kerencaman ras, bahasa, agama, budaya, dan geografi dikenalpasti oleh ramai sarjana sebagai penghalang kepada proses konstruksi bangsa Malaysia. Dari Rukun Negara, kepada Bangsa Malaysia, dan terkini 1Malaysia, pelbagai usaha telah dan sedang dilakukan pemerintah bagi mengkonstruksi sebuah negara-bangsa namun tidak berhasil. Tinjauan asas mendapati kompromi longgar pemerintah dalam mengintegrasikan kaum-kaum yang ada menyumbang kepada permasalahan itu. Berbanding di Indonesia, Thailand, dan Singapura, ketegasan pemerintahnya yang tidak berkompromi dalam mengintegrasikan kaum menerusi asimilasi paksaan dan perundangan yang ketat telah berjaya membentuk bangsanya mengikut acuan masing-masing. Walaupun dikatakan politik Malaysia ada kecenderungan untuk buta warna dek ledakan maklumat dan pendemokrasian, ianya masih tidak memperlihatkan tanda-tanda untuk hilang selama-lamanya. Justeru itu, makalah ini bermatlamat melakukan tinjauan ringkas terhadap proses konstruksi bangsa yang telah diamalkan dan melihat secara kritis gagasan-gagasan tersebut dalam konteks sains politik dengan melihat tiga sudut utama: ideologi, ras, dan bangsa sebagai komponen pembinaan bangsa.

KATA KUNCI: Politik Malaysia, premordialisme, nasionalisme, perkauman, proses integrasi, dan konstruksi negara-bangsa.

ABSTRACT: Its unique compositions that based on multiracial, multi religious, multicultural, and multilingual as well as geographically divided has been identified by many scholars as an obstacle to the construction of Malaysia nation. Several efforts from “Rukun Negara” (national ideology), “Bangsa Malaysia”, and the latest “1Malaysia” have been and are being made by the government in realizing the prospect but no avail. Initial survey has found out that tolerant government compromise to integrate the multiracial Malaysian has contributed to the problems. Compared to its neighbours, Indonesia, Thailand, and Singapore, the persistence of their rulers who does not compromise on racial integration has forced assimilation through strict legislation has succeeded in forming their own nation-state. Even though the recent trends show there is a tendency of Malaysian to be colour blind due to some kind of democratization and freedom of information access, still however, it did not show any sign that racial politics will disappear for good. Therefore, this paper aims to make a brief survey of the Malaysia nation-building programs and critically look at these programs by looking at three main angles: ideology, race, and ethnicity as the nation-building components.

KEY WORD: Malaysian politics, primordialism, nationalism, communalism, integration process, and nation-state building.

About the Author: Mujibu Abd Muis ialah Pensyarah Sains Politik di Fakulti Sains Pentadbiran & Pengajian Polisi UiTM (Universiti Teknologi MARA) Terengganu, 23000 Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia. Bagi urusan sebarang akademik, penulis boleh dihubungi dengan alamat emel: mujibu@tganu.uitm.edu.my

How to cite this article? Muis, Mujibu Abd. (2012). “Menangani Kerencaman Kaum dalam Proses Bina Bangsa: Cabaran dan Pengalaman Malaysia” in SOSIOHUMANIKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Vol.5, No.2 [November], pp.239-252. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI, ISSN 1979-0112.

Chronicle of article: Accepted (September 13, 2012); Revised (October 15, 2012); and Published (November 20, 2012).


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