Dolar vs tl talha başaran в твиттере dolar.

Controversies behind the Idea of Universal Human Rights: A Malaysian Perspective

Rizal Zamani bin Idris, Mohamad Shaukhi bin Mohd Radzi

Abstract


ABSTRAK: Persoalan hak asasi manusia merupakan suatu isu yang sering menjadi perdebatan semenjak berakhirnya Perang Dunia II (1939-1945). Pengisytiharan Deklarasi Hak Asasi Manusia pada tahun 1948 oleh Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu bertujuan untuk menetapkan satu nilai umum berkenaan hak asasi agar dapat dihormati dan dipatuhi oleh negara dan masyarakat antarabangsa. Walau bagaimanapun, nilai dan sifat kesejagatan deklarasi tersebut terus menjadi perdebatan dan pertikaian. Artikel ini secara khususnya akan membicarakan serta menhujahkan bahawa adalah sukar untuk seluruh masyarakat antarabangsa yang berbilang bangsa dan agama bagi mencapai kesepakatan berkaitan kesejagatan hak asasi tersebut. Terdapat pelbagai isu yang sering diperdebatkan berkaitan hal tersebut. Persoalan-persoalan yang selalu diperdebatkan ialan pengertian hak asasi itu sendiri, kecenderungan persoalan tersebut kepada pemikiran Barat, persoalan kedaulatan, kepelbagaian budaya dan konflik nilai, serta kelemahan yang terdapat di dalam Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu bersabit penyelesaian pelbagai isu-isu hak asasi diperingkat antarabangsa. Negara Malaysia pun memiliki wawasan dan dasar mengikut acuan sendiri yang bersabit dengan isu-isu hak asasi manusia ini.

Kata-kata kunci: kesegajatan Deklarasi Hak Asasi Manusia 1948, kepelbagaian nilai dan budaya, serta penyelesaian isu hak asasi di peringkat bangsa dan antarabangsa.

About the Authors: Rizal Zamani bin Idris, M.A. is a Lecturer in International Relations at the School of Social Sciences UMS (Malaysia University of Sabah). He earned his B.HSc. (Hons) from IIUM (International Islamic University Malaysia) in 2000; and Master of Arts (M.A.) in International Relations from DU (Deakin University), Australia, in 2004. His research interests include International Political Economy, Australia-Malaysia Relations, International Humanitarian Law and Security Studies. For academic purposes, he can be reached at: rizal.idris@gmail.com Mohamad Shaukhi bin Mohd Radzi, M.A. is a Lecturer at the School of Social Sciences, Malaysia University of Sabah (UMS). He was born in Merbok, Kedah, on 1 November 1972. He earned his M.A. (Master of Arts) from UKM (National University of Malaysia) in 2004. His M.A. thesis was “The Westernization of Ottoman Government Beginning 1789-1878”. One of his books is Pembaharuan Pentadbiran dan Perundangan dalam Era Tanzimat, 1839-1878 M dan Reaksi Golongan Uthmani Muda (Kedah: Penerbitan Universiti Utara Malaysia, 2005). For academic purposes, he can be reached at: mdshaukhi@hotmail.com

How to cite this article? Idris, Rizal Zamani bin & Mohamad Shaukhi bin Mohd Radzi. (2009). “Controversies behind the Idea of Universal Human Rights: A Malaysian Perspective” in SOSIOHUMANIKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Vol.2, No.1 [Mei], pp.47-58. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press, UPI Bandung, and UMS Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, ISSN 1979-0112.

Chronicle of article: Accepted (March 18, 2009); Revised (April 20, 2009); and Published (May 20, 2009).


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abd. Rauf, Muhammad. (1991). Ummah of Muslim Nation. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Article “Human Rights in World Book Millenium 2000” in The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book Inc., 2000.

Brown, Chris. (2002). Sovereignty Rights and Justice: International Political Theory Today. USA: Blackwell.

Buergenthal, Thomas, Dinah Shelton & David P. Stewart. (2002). International Human Rights in a Nutshell. US: West Group, 3rd edition.

Burchill, Scott. (2001). “Liberalism” in Scott Burchill et al. [eds.]. Theories of International Relations. London: Palgrave, 2nd edition.

Camilleri, Rita. (2001). Attitudes and Perceptions in Australia-Malaysia Relations: A Contemporary Profile. Bangi: Penerbit UKM [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia].

Charter of the United Nations. Available at http://www.un.org/abountun/charter [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: May 15, 2008].

Clapham, Andrew. (2001). “Human Rights” in Joel Krieger [ed.]. The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.

Donelly, Jack. (1993). International Human Rights. London: Westview Press.

Donelly, Jack. (1996a). “Human Rights and Human Dignity: An Analytic Critique of Non-Western Conceptions of Human Rights” in Philip Alston [ed.]. Human Rights Law. U.S.A.: Dartmonth.

Donelly, Jack. (1996b). Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. London: Cornell University Press.

Elfstrom, Gerard. (1998). International Ethics: Contemporary Ethical Issues. California: ABC-CLIO.

Falk, Richard A. (2000). Human Rights Horizons: The Pursuit of Justice in a Globalizing World. New York: Routledge.

Ghai, Yash. (1996). “Human Rights and Governance” in Philip Alston [ed.]. Human Rights Law. U.S.A.: Dartmonth.

Gunn, Geoffrey C. (2000). New World Hegemony in the Malay World. London: The Red Sea Press.

Healey, Kaye. (1993). “Beijing Accuses West of Internal Interference” in Human Rights: Issues of the Ninetees, Vol.17. New York: Spinney Press.

Howard, Rhoda E. (1986). Human Rights in Commonwealth Africa. U.S.A.: Rowman & Litlefield.

Kent, Ann. (1989). Discussion Paper, No.3. London, UK: n.p.

Mawdudi, Abul A’la. (1980). Human Rights in Islam. United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation.

Mohamad, Mahathir. (2000). “Regional Development and the Pacific Community” in Hashim Makaruddin [ed.]. Selected Speeches by Dr. Mahathir Mohammad. Selangor: Pelanduk Publications.

Peerenboom, R.P. (1996). “What’s Wrong with Chinese Rights? Toward a Theory of Rights with Chinese Characteristics” in Philip Alston [ed.]. Human Rights Law. U.S.A.: Dartmonth.

Richard, A. Falk. (2000). Human Right Horizons: The Pursuit of Justice in a Globalizing World. New York: Routldege.

Segal, Gerald. (1993). The World Affairs Companion. UK: Simon & Schuster.

Smith, Gary, Dave Cox & Scott Burchill. (1997). Australia in the World: An Introduction to Australian Foreign Policy. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Teson, Fernando R. (1996). “International Human Right and Cultural Relativism” in Philip Alston [ed.]. Human Rights Law. U.S.A.: Dartmonth.

Tonnesson, Stein. (2008). “Do Human Rights and Asian Values Go Together?”. Available at http:///www.brainsnchips.org/hr/hasianva.htm [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: May 15, 2008].

Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/lang/eng.htm [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: May 15, 2008].

Vincent, John. (1986). Human Rights and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.




SOSIOHUMANIKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan is published by Minda Masagi Press. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 4.0.