A Questionnaire Study on Euthanasia in Farm-Raised Mink

Hannu T Korhonen, Juhani Sepponen, Pekka Eskeli


ABSTRACT: A questionnaire was formulated to collect data on euthanasia procedures and routines in farmed mink. The principle aim was to clarify the extent and functionality of the main killing methods, i.e. filtered exhaust and cylinder CO (carbon monoxide) and cylinder CO2 (carbon dioxide). The questionnaire was sent to 397 mink farms in Finland and to 143 in the Netherlands. The final response rates were 34.3% for Finland and 24.5% for the Netherlands. The farms in the Netherlands were typically larger than those in Finland. The preferred method of euthanasia in the Netherlands is cylinder CO, which has been shown to work well in that country's farming system. In Finland, the filtered exhaust CO killing method has a long history, and farmers have grown accustomed to using this special method. The results were as follows: 20.0% of farmers listened outside the killing box, and when there was no sound, they presumed the animals were dead; 20.0% of farmers checked the state of the animals through the inspection window of the box before opening it; 80.0% of farmers waited for 5 minutes or more after the last mink was put into the box before emptying it; 45.7% farmers inspected each individual mink when emptying the box, checking for breathing and movement; and 14.3% of farmers inspected the mink at the cooling site, checking for breathing and movement. The replies to our questionnaire study suggest that farmers consider that all three euthanasia methods, cylinder CO, cylinder CO2 and filtered exhaust CO are effective and useful ways of killing mink in farming practice.

KEY WORDS: Mustela vison, killing methods, social welfare, gas euthanasia, fur farming, and Finland and Netherlands’ farmers.

About the Authors: Hannu T. Korhonen, Juhani Sepponen and Pekka Eskeli are Principal Research Scientists and Ph.D. Docents in Applied Zoology, Animal Production Research, MTT (Agrifood Research Finland) Silmäjärventie 2, 69100 Kannus, Finland. The authors can be contacted via e-mail at: hannu.t.korhonen@mtt.fi

How to cite this article? Korhonen, Hannu T., Juhani Sepponen & Pekka Eskeli. (2013). “A Questionnaire Study on Euthanasia in Farm-Raised Mink” in EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies, Vol.5(2) February, pp.241-250. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI in Bandung, West Java; and FKIP UMP in Purwokerto, Central Java, ISSN 1979-7877.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (December 20, 2012); Revised (January 25, 2013); and Published (February 17, 2013).

Full Text:



AGA [A Gas]. (2010a). AGA Käyttöturvallisuustiedote, Nro 1022, 2 February 2010, 2 pp.

AGA [A Gas]. (2010b). AGA Käyttöturvallisuustiedote, Nro 1054, 2 February 2010, 2 pp.

AVMA [Am. Vet. Med. Ass]. (2007). AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia. Finland: AVMA [Am. Vet. Med. Ass.], June, 27 pp (Formerly the Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia).

Barinaga, M. (1993). “Carbon Monoxide: Killer to Brain-Messenger in One Step” in Science, 259, p.309.

Carding, T. (1977). “Euthanasia of Dogs and Cats: An Analysis of Experience and Current Knowledge with Recommendations for Research” in Animal Regulation Studies, 1, pp.5-21.

Cooper, J., G. Mason & M. Raj. (1998). “Determination of the Aversion of Farmed Mink (Mustela Vison) to Carbon Dioxide” in Veterinary Record, 143, pp.359-361.

Doherr, M.G. et al. (1998). “Application and Evaluation of a Mailed Questionnaire for Epidemiologic Study of Corynebacterium Pseudotuberculosis Infection in Horses” in Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 35, pp.241-253.

EFBA [European Fur Breeders’ Association]. (1999). Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Farmed Mink, Fitch, and Fox in Europe. Brussels: Coordinated and issued by European Fur Breeders’ Association, 2nd edition, September 1999, 18 pp.

EFBA [European Fur Breeders’ Association]. (2008a). EFBA’s Response to the Revision of Council Directive 93/119/EC on the Protection of Animals at the Time of Slaughter or Killing. Brussels, Belgium: EFBA Publisher, November, 9 pp.

EFBA [European Fur Breeders’ Association]. (2008b). Revision of Directive 93/119/EC: Culling of Fur Animals. Brussels, Belgium: EFBA Publisher, 3 p.

Finley, G.G. (1980). “Humane Euthanasia (Killing) of Pelter Mink” in Scientifur, 4, pp.13-15.

Fitzhugh, D.C. et al. (2008). “A Comparative Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Displacement Rates for Euthanasia of the Ferret” in Laboratory Animals, 37(2), pp.81-86.

Gierløff, B.C.H. (1980a). “Humane Euthanasia of Danish Pelter Mink with Thiopentone in Contrast to Killing with Chloral-Hydrate” in Dansk Veterinary Tidskrift, 63, p.23.

Gierløff, B.C.H. (1980b). “Use of Chloral Hydrate and Pentobarbital Sodium to Kill Mink: A Comparative Study” in Dansk Veterinaertidskrift, 63(23), pp.943-953.

Gorman, D., A. Drewry & Y.L. Huan. (2003). “The Clinical Toxicology of Carbon Monoxide” in Toxicology, 187, pp.25-38.

Hansen, N.E., A. Creutzberg & H.B. Simonsen. (1991). “Euthanasia of Mink (Mustela Vison) by Means of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Nitrogen (N2)” in British Veterinary Journal, 147(2), pp.140-146.

Korhonen, H.T., S. Cizinauskas & R. Viitmaa. (2009). ”Evaluation of the Traditional Way of Euthanasia of Farmed Foxes from an Animal Welfare Point of View” in Annals of Animal Science, 9(1), pp.73-87.

Korhonen, H.T. (2010). “Killing Farmed Mink with CO and CO2” in NJF-Seminar, No.440, 29 September — 10 October, Oslo, Norway, 6 pp.

Lamboy, E., J.A. Roelofs & N. van Voorst. (1985). “Euthanasia of Mink with Carbon Monoxide” in Veterinary Record, 116, p.416.

Langford, N. (2005). “Carbon Dioxide Poisoning” in Toxicological Reviews, 24, pp.229-235.

Loftsgård, G., S. Braathen & A. Helgebostad. (1972). “Electrical Stunning of Mink” in Veterinary Record, 91, pp.132-134.

Loftsgård, G. (1980). “Euthanasia of Mink: A Review of the Methods Used to Kill Mink Before Pelting” in Norsk Veterinaertidskrift, 82, pp.492-496.

Löliger, H.Ch. (1984). “The Euthanasia of Fur Bearing Animals for Pelting” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Scientific Congress on Fur Animal Production. Versialles, France: Communication, No.54.

Piantadosi, C.A. (2002). “Carbon Monoxide Poisoning” in The New England Journal of Medice, 347, pp.1054-1055.

Raj, M. & G. Mason. (1999). “Reaction of Farmed Mink (Mustela Vison) to Argon-Induced Hypoxia” in Veterinary Record, 145, pp.736-737.

Regulation EC, No.1009/2009. Brussels: Council of European Union, 16 June.

EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies. Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional