Community-Based Lifelong Education in the Philippines: A Proposed Model in Grassroots Participatory Democracy in Southeast Asia

Serafin A Arviola, Jr.


ABSTRACT: Conflicts among family members, among different groups in the community, and among nations continue to escalate, threatening the survival of the human species. The Philippines is not an exception to these atrocious realities. In this case, Mindanao has experienced one of the most violent armed conflicts in the history of the Philippines. A series of armed confrontations between the government and various Muslim separatist groups have placed the civilian population at the mercy of conflicting parties. Various government programs and projects were initiated to address the problem of war and violence in Mindanao. The study is an attempt to evaluate an existing community-based peace-building program with the aimed to draw out insights on what kind of program suitable for culturally diverse communities that experiences protracted social conflict. The researcher recommends exploring other indicators not included in this study in order to draw out more insights on the dynamics of peace building at the grassroots level.

KEY WORDS: conflicts in the Philippines, government programs and projects, community-based lifelong education, and grassroots level.

About the Author: Prof. Serafin A. Arviola, Jr. is an Assistant Professor of the Philippine Normal University (PNU). He is currently a Director of Center for Linkages and Extension Services of PNU and a Human Rights Fellow of International Center for Tolerance Education based in New York City. He could be reached at:

How to cite this article? Arviola, Jr., Serafin A. (2008). “Community-Based Lifelong Education in the Philippines: A Proposed Model in Grassroots Participatory Democracy in Southeast Asia” in EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies, Vol.1(1) August, pp.1-16. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI in Bandung, West Java; and FKIP UMP in Purwokerto, Central Java, ISSN 1979-7877.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (June 1, 2008); Revised (July 3, 2008); and Published (August 17, 2008).

Full Text:



Abaya, Ma. Concepcion. (2001). Bukas Palad of the Focolare Movement: In the Light of the Peace Paradigm. Cotabato City: Notre Dame University.

Abrams, Irwins. (2000). The Words of Peace: The Nobel Peace Prize Laureates of the Twentieth Century — Selection from their Acceptance Speeches. New York: Harvard Press.

Abubakar, Carmen. (1999). “SPCPD and Economic Development in SZOPAD: High Expectations, Low Output” in Kasarinlan: Philippine Quarterly of Third World Studies, Vol.14, No. 3 & 4. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Acosta, Ely. (2000). The Tulunan Peace Zones: A Critical Analysis of People’s Initiatives to Peace and Development. Cotabato City: Notre Dame University.

Adams, David. (2000). “From the International Year to Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence” in International Journal of Curriculum and Instructions. Vol.2, No.1 [December] Issue.

Alim, Guiamel. (1999). Bual Integrated Development and Peace Program: Project Proposal. Cotabato City: Kadtuntaya Foundation Inc.

Assefa, Hizkias. (1993). “Peace and Reconciliation as a Paradigm” in Nairobi Peace Initiative Monograph Series, No.1. Kenya: Nairobi Peace Initiative.

Azar, Edward. (1991). The Analysis and Management of Protracted Conflict: The Psychodynamics of International Relationships. New York: Unofficial Diplomacy.

Baronia, Fe. (1998). Development and Validation of Peace Consciousness Scale for High School Teachers of Bondoc Peninsula. Manila City: Philippine Normal University.

BID-Peace Program Terminal Report. (2001). Kadtuntaya Foundation Inc. Cotabato City: December.

Castaneda, Jazer. (2000). Solidarity of the Tripeople in the Province of Sultan Kudarat: A Case Study. Cotabato City: Notre Dame University.

Castro, Loreta. (2001). “Towards a Holistic Understanding of the Concept of Peace”. Paper presented in the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Conference of Peace Educators, Cebu City, April.

Catholic Relief Services Brochures. (2000).

CTR [Catholic Relief Services]. (2001). Field Monitoring Report of Emmanuel Amancio. Davao City: September.

Clay, Kritine. (1998). Partnership: Lessons from the Peace and Development Learning Community. New York: Institute for Multi Track Diplomacy.

Conference Report. (2001). Mindanao Congress of Peace Educators. Cotabato City: Notre Dame University.

Coronel-Ferrer, Miriam. (1994). “Peace-Building and Mediation in the Philippines” in Peace, Conflict Resolution and Human Rights: Occasional Paper Series 94-3. Quezon City: Center for Integrative and Development Studies.

Coronel-Ferrer, Miriam. (1997). Peace Matters: A Philippine Peace Compendium. Quezon City:UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies.

“Culture of Peace News Network”. Available at [accessed: 5/7/2008].

Dela Torre, Lourdes. (2001). An Evaluation of the Community-based Forest Management Project using the P.E.A.C.E. Paradigm. Cotabato City: Notre Dame University.

Deles, Teresita Quintos. (2000). “Civil Society as Peacemaker” in The Media and Peace Reporting: Perspectives on Media and Peace Reportage. Pasig City: OPAPP & Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR).

Eliseo, Bernie. (1999). “Barangay Bual: In Transition Towards Peace and Reconcilation”. Unpublished Community Profile. Cotabato City: KFI.

Executive Order 125. (1995). Defining the Approach and Administrative Structure for Government’s Comprehensive Peace Efforts. Manila: OPAPP.

Francisco, Oscar. (1996). Non-Government Organizations: New Issues and Challenges. Intersect: February Issue.

Galtung, Johan. (1995). “Essays on Peace” in M. Salla [ed.]. Violence, Peace and Peace Research. Queens Land University Press.

Jantzi, Vernon. (1991). “Helping Developing Nations: Socio-Political Paradigms of Development” in Charles P. De Santo [ed.]. Christian Perspectives on Social Problems. London: New Hampire Press.

Kadtuntaya Foundation Brochures. (2000).

Kadtuntaya Foundation Seminar Proceedings. (1999). Towards Building a Culture of Peace. Sultan Kudarat: Bual Elementary School, July 27-29.

Lederach, John Paul. (1995). Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures. New York: Syracuse University Press.

Lederach, John Paul. (1997a). Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Press Peace.

Lederach, John Paul. (1997b). Peace-Building in Divided Societies: Tools for Strategic and Responsive Evaluation. Guatemala: Organization of American State’s PROPAZ.

Lee, Z. & Gastardo-Conaco. (1994). “Peace Zones in the Philippines” in Peace and Conflict Resolution and Human Rights Reseach Report, No.2. Quezon City: UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies.

Malag, Melindi. (1999). Health Resource Development Program as a Strategy in Promoting Peace and Development: An Institutional Case Study. Cotabato City: Notre Dame University.

Montiel, Cristina Jayme. (1995). Cry Out for Peace: Philippine Politics and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs.

Municipal Profile of Isulan. (2001). Isulan: Sultan Kudarat.

Neufeltdt, R. et al. (2000). Explicit and Implicit Peacebuilding: Catholic Relief Services in Mindanao, Philippines and Bosnia-Herzegovina. New York: Catholic Relief Services.

N.n. (1998). “Building a Culture of Peace in Barangay Bual Terminal Report” in Kadtuntaya Foundation. Cotabato City: June.

Paez, Patricia Ann. (1997). “State-Civil Society Relations in Policy Making (Focus on The Legislative)” in Marlon Wui & Glenda Lopez [eds.]. State Civil Society Relations in Policy Making. Quezon City: UP Third World Studies Center.

Reardon, Betty. (1997). Tolerance: The Threshold of Peace. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Regehr, Ernie. (1995). “Rebuilding Peace in War-torn and War-threatened Societies: The Challenge of Peace-Building” in The Ploughshares Monitor, Vol.XVI, No.4 [December].

Salazar-Clemenna, Rose Marie. (2000). “Counselling for Peace” in De Guzman A. [ed.]. Building Peace: Essays on Peace Psychology. Manila: De La Sale University Press.

Sta. Maria, Felice. (1998). “Filipino Attitudes towards Tolerance” in Peace and Tolerance in the History of the Philippines. Manila: UNESCO.

Sta. Maria, Madelene. (2000). “Managing Social Conflict: The Philippine Peace Zone Experience” in Philippine Journal of Psychology, Vol.33, No.2.

Toh, Swe-Hin. (1996). A Strategy to Fight Poverty: Philippines. The World Bank Country Operation Division, Country Department 1, East Asia & Pacific Region.

Toh, Swe-Hin. (2000). “Flowing from the Roots: An Educational Journey Towards a Culture of Peace”. Paper presented during the award ceremony of UNESCO Prize for Peace Education, France, December 11; and it was published at the International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, Vol.2, No.1.

Toh, Swe-Hin & Floresca-Cawagas Virginia. (1987). Peace Education: A Framework for the Philippines. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.

UN Resolution A/53/243. (1999). Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace. New York: United Nations, Adopted on September, 53rd session.

EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies. Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional