Controversy of the Liberal-Islamic Thought about Pluralism of Religions in Indonesia

Samsudin Samsudin, Mumuh Muhsin Zakaria

Abstract


ABSTRACT: To enter into the religious pluralism of thought, in which the Muslims need to do, is to reinterpret the teachings of Islam, so that the Muslims do not happen with the authoritarian attitudes that consider the most of uncorrect in understanding of Islam. The word of plural and pluralism means diversity and plurality. Thus, the notion of pluralism can be defined as an ideology that recognizes diversity in its various aspects, for example in understanding of religion, culture, and geography. This study tries to elaborate the controversy of the liberal-Islamic thought about pluralism of religions in Indonesia. By using the qualitative methods, especially the historical approach with descriptive analysis, this study concerns on the controversy of Islamic liberal thought in one hand; and, in other hand, its relevances to religious pluralism in Indonesian’s social and political context. The findings show that pluralism of religions by liberal Islamic group that all religions with its variations and levels of different depths are the same as the road of religious. This opinion has caused controversy, because there is criticism and there were strongly rejected the idea of pluralism of the liberal Islam. As K.H. Atiyan Ali M. Da’i (2002) and MUI (Indonesian Ulema Council) issued a fatwa that pluralism is unlawful, because it has a tendency considers all religions that difference could be reduced or avoided, if the same understanding of pluralism. 

KEY WORDS: Controversial Issues; Liberal Islamic Thought; Understanding of Islam; Pluralism of Religions; Indonesian Islam. 

  

About the Authors: Samsudin, M.Ag. is a Postgraduate Student of UNPAD (Padjadjaran University) Bandung and a Lecturer at the Faculty of Adab and Humanities UIN SGD (State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati) Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Dr. Mumuh Muhsin Zakaria is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of History, Faculty of Humanities UNPAD Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Corresponding authors is: samsudin_1970@yahoo.com

Recommended Citation: Samsudin & Mumuh Muhsin Zakaria. (2017). “Controversy of the Liberal-Islamic Thought about Pluralism of Religions in Indonesia” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.9(1), October, pp.71-80. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UIN SGD Bandung, ISSN 2085-0980.

Article Timeline: Accepted (August 17, 2017); Revised (September 19, 2017); and Published (October 28, 2017).


Keywords


Controversial Issues; Liberal Islamic Thought; Understanding of Islam; Pluralism of Religions; Indonesian Islam

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdalla, Ulil Abshar. (2002). “Menyegarkan Kembali Pemahaman Islam” in newspaper of Harian Kompas. Jakarta: 18 November.

Akgunduz, Ahmed. (2010). Islamic Law in Theory and Practice: Introduction to Islamic Law. Rotterdam: IUR Press.

al-Anshori, Fauzan. (2003). Melawan Konspirasi JIL (Jaringan Islam Liberal). Jakarta: Pustaka al-Furqan.

Ali, Mukti. (1989). Ilmu Perbandingan Agama dan Perkembangannya di Indonesia. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan.

Arkoun, Muhammad. (1994). Rethinking Islam. Boulder, San Francisco, and Oxford: Westview Press.

Arkoun, Muhammad. (2002). The Unthought in Contemporary Islamic Thought. London: Saqi Books.

Armas, Adnin. (2003). Pengaruh Kristen-Orientalis terhadap Islam Liberal: Dialog Interaktif dengan Aktivis Jaringan Islam Liberal. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press.

Assyaukanie, Luthfi [ed]. (2002). Wajah Liberal Islam di Indonesia. Jakarta: Jaringan Islam Liberal.

Azra, Azyumardi. (2005). “Pluralism, Co-Existence, and Religious Harmony: Indonesian Experience in the ‘Middle Path’”. Available online at: https://religiousfreedom.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/Azyumardi [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: July 3, 2017].

Benda-Beckmann, Franz von. (2002). “Who’s Afraid of Legal Pluralism?” in Journal of Legal Pluralism, No.47. Available online also at: http://commission-on-legal-pluralism.com [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: July 3, 2017].

Berger, Peter L. (1991). Langit Suci: Agama sebagai Realitas Sosial. Jakarta: Penerbit LP3ES, translated by Hartono.

Binder, Leonard. (1988). Islamic Liberalism: A Critique of Development Ideologies. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Da’i, K.H. Atiyan Ali M. (2002). “Islam Liberal Rentan Dimanfaatkan Rezim” in magazine of Kiblat, Edisi No.X [Januari], p.44.

DeMott, Joseph. (2013). Principled Pluralism: Report of the Inclusive America Project. Washington, D.C.: The Aspen Institute. Available online also at: https://assets.aspeninstitute.org/content/uploads/files [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: July 3, 2017].

Depag RI [Departemen Agama Republik Indonesia]. (1983). Al-Qur’an dan Terjemahnya. Jakarta: Departemen Agama Republik Indonesia.

Effendi, Djohan. (1989). “Kemusliman dan Kemajemukan Agama” in Th. Sumarthana et al. [eds]. Dialog: Kritik dan Identitas Agama. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius.

Effendy, Bachtiar. (2001). Masyarakat Agama dan Pluralisme Keagamaan. Yogyakarta: Galang Press.

Fata, Ahmad Khoirul & M. Ainun Najib. (2014). “Kontekstualisasi Pemikiran K.H. Hasyim Asy`ari tentang Persatuan Umat Islam” in MIQOT: Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Keislaman, Vol.XXXVIII, No.2, Juli-Desember. Available online also at: http://jurnalmiqotojs.uinsu.ac.id/index.php/jurnalmiqot/article/view/65/43 [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: May 20, 2017].

Firdauis, Adnan. (2002). “Fatwa Mati buat yang Usil” in magazine of Sabili, No.12, Th.10 [Desember].

Gellner, Ernest. (1992). Postmodernism, Reason, and Religion. London: Routledge.

Glassé, Cyril. (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. London: Rowman Altamira.

Haekal, Muhammad Husain. (2015). Sejarah Hidup Muhammad. Jakarta: PT Pusataka Litera Antara, translated by Ali Audah.

Halim, Abdul [ed]. (2001). Teologi Islam Rasional: Apresiasi terhadap Wacana Praksis Harun Nasution. Jakarta: Ciputat Press.

Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Isma’iel, Syamsul Bahri. (2002). “Islam Liberal: Menafsirkan Agama dengan Hermenetika Barat dan Islam” in magazine of Media Dakwah, p.25.

Kartodirdjo, Sartono. (1993). Pendekatan Ilmu Sosial dalam Metodologi Sejarah. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Kitley, Philip. (2000). Television, Nation, and Culture in Indonesia. Ohio: The Ohio University Center for International Studies.

Kruzman, Charles. (2001). Tentang Isu-isu Global: Wacana Islam Liberal dan Pemikiran Islam Kontemporer. Jakarta: Penerbit Paramadina.

Kuntowijoyo. (2003). Metodologi Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana.

Lewis, B. et al. [eds]. (1997). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume IV. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, new edition.

Ma’arif, Ahmad Syafii. (2009). Titik-titik Kisar di Perjalananku. Jakarta: Mizan Publika.

Madjid, M. Nurcholish [ed]. (1984). Khazanah Intelektual Islam. Jakarta: Penerbit Bulan Bintang.

Madjid, M. Nurcholish. (1992). Islam, Doktrin, dan Peradaban: Telaah Kritis tentang Masalah Keimanan, Kemanusiaan, dan Kemodernan. Jakarta: Paramadina.

Magazine of Gatra. Jakarta: 20 March 2001.

Miswar, Khairil. (2015). “Pemikiran Ulil Absrar Abdala dan Jaringan Islam Liberal”. Available online at: https://www.kompasiana.com/khairilmiswar/pemikiran-ulil-absar-abdala [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: May 20, 2017].

Monecal, Maria Rosa. (2002). The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.

Munhanif, Ali. (1996). “IsIam and the Struggle for Religious Pluralism in Indonesia: A Political Reading of the Religious Thought of Mukti Ali” in STUDIA ISLAMIKA: Indonesian Journal for Islamic Studies, Vol.3, No.1. Available online also at: https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/182281 [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: May 20, 2017].

MUI [Majelis Ulama Indonesia]. (2005). Fatwa tentang Pluralisme, Liberalisme, dan Sekulerisme. Jakarta: Majelis Ulama Indonesia.

Muin, Munir A. (2014). “Nurcholish Madjid’s Idea of Inclusive Theology in Islam” in Islamika Indonesiana, Volume 1(1). Available online also at: file:///C:/Users/acer/Downloads/6-80-1-PB.pdf [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: July 3, 2017].

Munawar-Rachman, Budi [ed]. (2016). Membela Kebebasan Agama, Jilid I dan III. Jakarta: The Asia Foundation.

Muzakki, Akh. (2007). “Current Debates in the Post-Soeharto Indonesian Islam: Examining the Intellectual Base of Liberal and Anti-liberal Islamic Movement” in Al-Jami‘ah, Vol.45, No.2. Available online also at: file:///C:/Users/acer/Downloads/73-108-1-PB.pdf [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: July 3, 2017].

Nasr, Sayyed Hossein. (1989). “Islam di Dunia: Keberagaman Budaya dalam Kesatuan Spiritual” in Journal of Ulumul Qur’an, Vol.1, No.1. Jakarta: Penerbit LSAF [Lembaga Studi Agama dan Filsafat].

Piscatori, James [ed]. (2000). Islam, Islamists, and the Electoral Principle in the Middle East. Leiden: ISIM Publisher.

Pribadi, Airlangga & M. Yudi R. Haryono. (2002). Post Islam Liberal: Membangun Dentuman, Mentradisikan Eksperimentasi. Bekasi: Penerbit Gugus Press.

Rahman, Fazlur. (1979). Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Shihab, M. Quraish. (1992). Membumikan Al-Qur‘an: Fungsi dan Peran Wahyu dalam Kehidupan Masyarakat. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan.

Sjamsuddin, Helius. (2007). Metodologi Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Ombak.

Sou’yb, Joesoef. (1996). Agama-agama Besar di Dunia. Jakarta: Al-Husna Zikra.

Suryadinata, Leo, Evi Nurvidya Arifin & Aris Ananta. (2003). Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Singapore: ISEAS [Institute of South East Asian Studies].

Sya’ban, A. Ginanjar. (2017). “Ilmu Pedagogik Islam Nusantara Karya K.H. Hasyim Asy’ari”. Available online at: http://www.nu.or.id/post/read/77385/ilmu-pedagogik-islam-nusantara-karya-kh-hasyim-asyari [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: July 3, 2017].

USI [United States Information]. (1991). Agency: What is Democracy? Washington, D.C.: United States Information.

Walker, Adam. (2014). “Constitution of Medina” in C. Fitzpatrick & A. Walker [eds]. Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God, 2 Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO Publisher, pp.113-115.

“Why We Need to Go Beyond Religion”. Available online at: http://www.beyondreligion.com/su_about/needtogo.html [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: July 3, 2017].

Yaqub, Ali Mustafa. (2003). “Hubungan dengan Non-Muslim” in Mimbar Ulama, No.297, Rabiul Awal 1424 AH [Anno Hijriyah] / May AD [Anno Domini].

Zeitman, Kim & Mohamed Elsanousi [eds]. (2007). “Sharing the Well: A Resource Guide for Jewish-Muslim Engagement”. Available online at: http://www.jtsa.edu/stuff/contentmgr/files [accessed in Bandung, Indonesia: July 3, 2017].


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

 

View My Stats