Beliefs and Practices in the Life Cycle of the Agtas of Lupigue, Ilagan, Isabela, Philippines: Its Implications to Social Development

Edizon B Abon, Judith R Garcia, Agnes S Reyes

Abstract


ABSTRACT: The Philippines is a nation blessed with several ethnic groups. This condition makes the Filipinos socially and culturally different. The Filipino character is actually a combination of the Eastern and Western cultures. The study attempted to find out the beliefs and practices in the life cycle of the Agta of Lupigue, Ilagan, Isabela, Philippines and their social implications. The ethnographic research method was used to attain the purposes of this study. Structured and unstructured interview and participant observation were conducted to confirm and validate the data gathered through field study. Documentary analysis was employed to draw vital information on the origin of the Agta and the community where they live. Findings of the study revealed that among the Agta of Lupigue, there are beliefs that are consistently practiced and observed. This study poses a great challenge to social scientist, especially in their role as agent of social transformation. The study recommends that social scientists and educators should commit to the religious implementation of the regeneration of the IPs (Indigenous Peoples) beliefs and practices that are considered beneficial and practical.

KEY WORDS: Beliefs and Practices; Life Cycle; Agtas of Lupigue; Social Scientists and Educators; Social Implications. 

IKHTISAR: “Keyakinan dan Praktek dalam Siklus Kehidupan Suku Agtas dari Lupigue, Ilagan, Isabela, Filipina: Implikasinya untuk Pembangunan Sosial”. Filipina adalah negara yang diberkati dengan beberapa kelompok etnis. Kondisi ini membuat bangsa Filipina secara sosial dan budaya berbeda. Karakter bangsa Filipina sebenarnya merupakan kombinasi antara budaya Timur dan Barat. Penelitian ini berusaha mengetahui keyakinan dan praktek dalam siklus kehidupan suku Agta dari Lupigue, Ilagan, Isabela, Filipina dan implikasi sosialnya. Metode penelitian etnografi digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian. Wawancara terstruktur dan tidak terstruktur serta observasi partisipatif dilakukan untuk mengkonfirmasi dan memvalidasi data yang dikumpulkan melalui studi lapangan. Analisis dokumenter dikerjakan untuk menarik informasi penting tentang asal-usul suku Agta dan masyarakatnya di mana mereka tinggal. Temuan penelitian menunjukan bahwa diantara suku Agta dari Lupigue, ada keyakinan yang konsisten dipraktekkan dan dihayati. Penelitian ini merupakan tantangan besar untuk ilmuwan sosial, terutama dalam peran mereka sebagai agen transformasi sosial. Penelitian merekomendasikan bahwa ilmuwan sosial dan pendidik harus berkomitmen dalam pelaksanaan keagamaan suku asli secara regenerasi tentang keyakinan dan praktek yang dianggap menguntungkan dan bersifat praktis.

KATA KUNCI: Keyakinan dan Praktek; Siklus Kehidupan; Suku Agtas dari Lupigue; Ilmuwan Sosial dan Pendidik; Implikasi Sosial.

  

About the Authors: Prof. Edizon B. Abon, Prof. Judith R. Garcia, and Prof. Dr. Agnes S. Reyes are the Lecturers at the PNU (Philippine Normal University), North Luzon, Alicia, Isabela, Philippines. For academic interests, the authors can be contacted via e-mail at: garcia.jr@pnu.edu.ph

How to cite this article? Abon, Edizon B., Judith R. Garcia & Agnes S. Reyes. (2016). “Beliefs and Practices in the Life Cycle of the Agtas of Lupigue, Ilagan, Isabela, Philippines: Its Implications to Social Development” in SUSURGALUR: Jurnal Kajian Sejarah & Pendidikan Sejarah, Vol.4(1) March, pp.51-64. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UBD in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, ISSN 2302-5808.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (November 25, 2015); Revised (January 25, 2016); and Published (March 30, 2016).


Keywords


Beliefs and Practices; Life Cycle; Agtas of Lupigue; Social Scientists and Educators; Social Implications

Full Text:

PDF

References


Armstrong, Thomas. (2008). The Human Odyssey: Navigating the Twelve Stages of Life. New York: Sterling.

Baliao, M.E. & C.F. Parcon. (2011). Society and Culture in a Changing World. Manila: Rex Book Store.

Bengwayan, M. (2007). “Filipino ‘Agta’ Aborigines Threatened with Extinction: The Agtas are at the Bottom of the Complex Philippine Social Hierarchy”. Available online at: http://www.bt.com.bn/focus/2007/10/28/filipino_agta_aborigines_threatened_with_extinction [accessed in Manila, Philippines: August 16, 2015].

Calzado, C. (2014). “Meet the Agtas”. Available online at: http://communitycarbonpool.info/en/news/current/11-meet-the agtas?highlight=WyJtZWV0IiwidGhlIiwiJ3RoZSIsImFndGFzIiwibWVldCB0aGUiLCJtZWV0IHRoZSBhZ3RhcyIsInRoZSBhZ3RhcyJd [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 18, 2015].

Colin, Jessie M. (2010). “Cultural and Clinical Care Cultural and Clinical Care for Haitians Haitians”. Available online at: https://www.in.gov/isdh/files/Haiti_Cultural_and_Clinical_Care_Presentation_Read-Only.pdf [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 15, 2016].

Coloma, T.M. (2012). Essentials of Sociology and Anthropology: An Interactive Study. Quezon City: C and E Publishing, Inc.

CP [Congress of the Philippines]. (1997). Republic Act No.8371: An Act to Recognize, Protect, and Promote the Right of Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples, Creating a National Commission on Indigenous Peoples, Establishing Implementing Mechanisms, Appropriating Funds therefore, and for Other Purposes. Metro Manila: Third Regular Session, Tenth Congress, Congress of the Philippines, on 28 July.

CSO [Cultural Survival Organization]. (2014). “Who are Indigenous Peoples?”. Available online at: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/who-are-indigenous-peoples [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 18, 2015].

de Leon, Hector S. (2014). Textbook on Philippine Constitution. Manila: Rex Printing Company, Inc.

de Viana, A.V. (2011). The Philippines: A Story of a Nation. Manila: Rex Book Store.

Ember, C. & M. Ember. (1992). Anthropology: A Brief Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Engels, Frederick. (2004). The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State. Chippendale NSW [New South Wales], Australia: Resistance Books.

Erikson, Erik H. (1979). Dimensions of a New Identity: The Jefferson Lectures in the Humanities. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Estioko-Griffin, A.A. & P.B. Griffin. (1985). “Women Hunters: The Implications for Pleistocene Prehistory and Contemporary Ethnography” in M.J. Goodman [ed]. Women in Asia and the Pacific: Towards an East-West Dialogue. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, pp.61-81.

Eyong, C.T. (2003). “Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development in Africa: A Case Study in Central Africa” in Center for Development Research.

Floro, Jr., F.V. (2010). “Philippine Mystic Dwarfs Luis, Armand, and Angel Meet Healing and Psychic Judge Florentino Floro”. Available online at: https://www.scribd.com/document/71670006/Philippine-Mystic-Dwarfs [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 30, 2016].

Fraenkel, J.R. & N.E. Wallen. (2006). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill, sixth edition.

Friedman, Lawrence Jacob. (2000). Identity's Architect: A Biography of Erik H. Erikson. New York: Harvard University Press.

Funtecha, H.F. & M.J. Padilla. (2010). A Study Guide in Philippine History. Manila: Rex Book Store.

Gbenda, J.S. (2007). “Time and Space in Traditional Eschatology” in Journal of Oriental and African Studies, Vol.116.

Geronimo, Marites C., Marie Grace S. Cabansag & Agnes S. Reyes. (2016a). “Beliefs and Practices on Utilization and Conservation of Resources among the Agay of North Sierra Madre Mountain System, Philippines” in Asia Pacific Journal of Research, Vol.1(1). Available online also at: http://apjor.com/downloads/2705201613.pdf [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 30, 2016].

Geronimo, Marites C., Marie Grace S. Cabansag & Agnes S. Reyes. (2016b). “Indigenous Utilization of Resources and Conservation Practices of the Agta of Lupigue, Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines” in EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies, Vol.8(2) February, pp.115-128. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UMP Purwokerto, ISSN 1979-7877.

Halili, M.N. (2010). Philippine History. Manila: Rex Book Store.

Hays, Jeffrey. (2008). “Superstitions, Ghosts, Mythical Creatures, and Myths in the Philippines”. Available online at: http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Philippines/sub5_6c/entry-3863.html [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 15, 2016].

Headland, Thomas N. (2010). “Why the Philippine Negrito Languages are Endangered” in Margaret Florey [ed]. Languages of Austronesia. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.110-118.

http://www.institute4learning.com/stages_of_life.php [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 15, 2016].

IFAD [International Fund for Agricultural Development]. (2014). “Indigenous Peoples, 1995-2014: Valuing, Respecting, and Supporting Diversity”. Available online at: http://www.ifad.org/english/indigenous/index_full.htm [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 18, 2015].

Interview with Respondent A, an Agta Tribe, in Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines, on 15 January 2015.

Interview with Respondent B, an Agta Tribe, in Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines, on 20 January 2015.

Interview with Respondent C, an Agta Tribe, in Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines, on 25 January 2015.

Interview with Respondent D, an Agta Tribe, in Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines, on 30 January 2015.

Interview with Respondent E, an Agta Tribe, in Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines, on 5 February 2015.

Interview with Respondent F, an Agta Tribe, in Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines, on 10 February 2015.

Interview with Respondent G, an Agta Tribe, in Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines, on 15 February 2015.

Interview with Respondent H, an Agta Tribe, in Ilagan City, Isabela, Philippines, on 20 February 2015.

Kail, R.V. & J.C. Cavanaugh. (2013). Human Development: A Life Span View. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.

Nakashima, D., L. Prott & P. Bridgewater. (2000). “Tapping into the World Wisdom” in UNESCO Sources, Issue of July – August.

Nakashima, D. & M. Roue. (2002). “Indigenous People and Sustainable Practices” in Social and Economic Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Vol.5, pp.314-324.

Nanda, S. & R. Warms. (2002). Cultural Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Inc., seventh edition.

NCIP [National Commission on Indigenous People]. (2012). “NCIP Administrative Order No.2, Series of 2012: The General Guidelines on the Confirmation of Indigenous Political Structures and the Registration of Indigenous Peoples’ Organizations”. Print/Documents Owned by Authors.

Neumannova, Radka. (2007). “Multiculturalism and Cultural Diversity in Modern Nation-State”. Paper presented in Conference Turin. Available online also at: http://www.eisa-net.org/be-bruga/eisa/files/events/turin/Neumannova-Multiculturalism [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 15, 2016].

Ocampo, R. & R. Ocampo. (2014). “The Economic Life of the Negritos of Luna, Apayao” in Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(1). Available online also at: http://www.ejournals.ph/index.php?journal=APJMR&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=7778&path%5B%5D=8106 [accessed in Manila, Philippines: 22 December 2015].

Peoples, J. & G. Bailey. (1997). Humanity: An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, fourth edition.

Pinoy, Global. (2014). “Philippine Tribes: Agta. Posted by Carrie B. Yan on April 16, 2012”. Available online at: http://www.globalpinoy.com [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 18, 2015].

Rees, A. (1999). Biodiversity and Intellectual Property Rights: Implications for Indigenous Peoples of South Africa. Belmont, CA: WCED [World Commission on Environment and Development], Boundt and Commission.

Reyes, L. (2012). “REDD+ in the Sierra Madre Mountains of the Philippines”. Available online at: http://communitycarbonpool.info/en/news/2012/61-redd-in-the-sierra-madre-mountains-of-the-philippines [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 18, 2015].

Sampa, E.M. (2012). Rudiments of Qualitative Research Designs and Analyses. Manila: Rex Book Store.

Sevilla, C.G. et al. (1992). Research Methods. Quezon City: Rex Book Store, revised edition.

Steinberg, D.J. (2009). Republic of the Philippines. Microsoft Encarta Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.

Thotse, Mahunele. (2014). “Constructing a Collective Memory: Monuments Commemorating Warrior Kings in Limpopo Province, South Africa”. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Pretoria, South Africa: Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria. Available online also at: http://repository.up.ac.za/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2263/50805/Thotse_Constructing_2015.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 22, 2015].

Tuyor, Josefo B. et al. (2007). Indigenous Peoples Rights Act: Legal and Institutional Frameworks, Implementation and Challenges in the Philippines. Discussion Papers, East Asia and Pacific Region, Social Development, Rural Development, Natural Resources, and Environment Sectors. Washington DC: WB [World Bank].

UNCED [United Nations Conference on Environment & Development]. (1992). Agenda 21: Recognizing and Strengthening the Role of Indigenous People and Their Communities. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, 3 to 14 June. Available online also at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 22, 2015].

UNPFII [United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues]. (2014). “Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Voices (1)”. Available online at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/5session_factsheet1.pdf [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 18, 2015].

UR [United Republic] of Tanzania. (2013). “Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List”. Available online at: http://www.who.int/selection_medicines/country_lists/Tanzania_STG_052013.pdf [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 18, 2015].

Zulueta, F.M. & J.R. Perez. (2010). Methods of Research: Thesis Writing and Applied Statistics. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
SUSURGALUR: Jurnal Kajian Sejarah & Pendidikan Sejarah. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

 View My Stats