Islam dan Kekuasaan dalam Perspektif Psikologi Politik

Saliyo Saliyo

Abstract


ABSTRAKSI: Memahami politik tidak dapat dilepaskan dari pemahaman ideologi. Setiap partai politik di negara manapun memiliki ideologi tertentu. Partai politik berkiprah dan berperan dalam suatu negara akan selalu berpijak pada ideologi yang dianutnya. Begitu juga dalam mengkaji politik dalam perspektif psikologi politik. Setiap perilaku politik, pada galibnya, tidak akan menyimpang dari garis ideologi partai yang dianutnya. Makalah ini ditulis untuk mengetahui penjelasan politik Islam dalam perspektif psikologi politik. Makalah ini merupakan hasil reviu dari berbagai sumber bacaan, baik buku ataupun jurnal ilmiah. Penulisan makalah ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan sumber data pustaka. Hasil kajian menunjukan bahwa di antara pemikiran Islam dan politik, yang dikemukakan oleh Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Muhamad bin Habib al-Mawardi, Imam al-Ghazali, dan Ibnu Taimiyah, pemikiran tersebut banyak dipahami dan menjadi pegangan umat Islam yang bermahzab Sunni. Walaupun demikian, perilaku politik yang dilakukan oleh seseorang, baik individu ataupun kelompok, pada umumnya selalu dikaitkan dengan teori S-R atau Stimulus – Respons dari aliran behavioralisme. Pada sisi lain, sumber-sumber perilaku orang tersebut secara individu dan kelompok berakar pada ideologi, sikap, dan nilai yang dianutnya. Dalam konteks ini, hubungan Islam dan politik dapat dijelaskan, baik melalui ilmu politik maupun psikologi politik, dalam perspektif Islam. Hal itu karena politik Islam dapat berintegrasi dengan psikologi politik. Akhirnya, untuk mengurangi pemahaman-pemahaman politik garis keras, ataupun radikalisme dalam Islam, maka ilmu psikologi politik dapat digunakan untuk menyelesaikan problema sosial dan politik tersebut.

KATA KUNCI: Islam dan Politik; Psikologi Politik; Ideologi, Sikap dan Nilai; Umat Islam; Problema Sosial dan Politik. 

ABSTRACT: “Islam and Power in the Perspective of Political Psychology”. Understanding politics cannot be separated from the understanding of ideology. Any political party in any country has a particular ideology. Political parties take part and play a role in a country will always stand on the ideology that its embraces. So also in the study of politics in the perspective of political psychology. Any political behavior, on the other hand, will not deviate from the ideological line of the party that its embraces. This paper was written to know the explanation of Islamic politics in the perspective of political psychology. This paper is the result of reviews from various sources of reading, whether books or scientific journals. Writing this paper using qualitative methods with the source of library data. The results of the study show that among Islamic and political thought, proposed by Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Habib al-Mawardi, Imam al-Ghazali, and Ibn Taymiyya, these ideas are widely understood and become the guidance of Muslims with Sunni’ school of thought. Nevertheless, the political behavior undertaken by a person, whether individual or group, is generally always associated with S-R or Stimulus – Response theory from the behavioralism school of thought. On the other hand, the individual and group's behavioral sources are rooted in his/her ideology, attitudes, and values. In this context, Islamic and political relations can be explained, both through political science and political psychology, in the Islamic perspectives. That's because Islamic politics can be integrated with political psychology. Finally, to reduce the hard-line political insights, or radicalism in Islam, the science of political psychology can be used to solve the social and political problems.

KEY WORD: Islam and Politics; Political Psychology; Ideology, Attitude and Value; Muslims; Social and Political Problems.

About the Author: Dr. Saliyo adalah Dosen di STAIN (Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri) Kudus, Jalan Conge Ngembalrejo, Kudus 59322, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Untuk kepentingan akademik, penulis bisa dihubungi dengan alamat emel: saliyo41876@gmail.com

Suggested Citation: Saliyo. (2017). “Islam dan Kekuasaan dalam Perspektif Psikologi Politik” in INSANCITA: Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, Volume 2(2), August, pp.137-156. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI, ISSN 2443-1776.

Article Timeline: Accepted (February 20, 2017); Revised (May 30, 2017); and Published (August 30, 2017).


Keywords


Islam dan Politik; Psikologi Politik; Ideologi, Sikap dan Nilai; Umat Islam; Problema Sosial dan Politik

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